There are, however, some big differences between English and Spanish. This means that you pronounce letters consistently and each letter represents a certain sound. This also means that Spanish is a fairly simple language for novices to learn, especially when it comes to spelling and speaking.
As Spanish originates from Latin, it has gendered language— masculine and feminine words and articles. The genders of adjectives must agree with their accompanying nouns, as well as the articles of those nouns. Spanish enjoys more tenses and a greater variation in verb parts compared to English. These all have an effect on verb forms, possessives and pronouns.
The Royal Spanish Academy is officially responsible for being the custodian of the Spanish language. It has its home in Madrid and operates numerous language academies through the Association of Spanish Language Academies in the 21 other countries that speak Spanish. The Academy prides itself on inventing the use of the inverted question and exclamation marks, which are unique to the Spanish language. We know that Spanish descended from Latin and spread from the Iberian Peninsula to Latin America through colonization.
There are also countless differences in the Spanish language within Latin America itself! The differences originally arose because the colonies developed somewhat independently from one another, and even from Spain itself.
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Since communication was limited, with no telephones, airplanes, emails, WhatsApp or Skype, some elements of older Spanish were retained and others abandoned. This is used in the Spanish from Spain, and so it was transferred to the Americas. Arab armies started to conquer the Iberian Peninsula in , bringing Arabic art, architecture and language to the region. Arabic gradually mixed with old Spanish to become the language spoken today.
When Spain expelled the Arabs in , the language retained some 8, Arabic words. Apart from Latin, Arabic is the largest contributor to Spanish. Las Glosas Emilianenses Glosses of Saint Emilianus , written in , were long thought to be the first written Spanish texts that survive today. They consist of Spanish and Basque notes made on a religious Latin manuscript. The unknown author is thought to have been a monk at the Suso monastery.
The reason for this expansion lies in the fact that Spanish is more detailed, poetic and expressive.
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It thus uses more words to describe something that English would probably sum up in just one word. Spain has always been a popular travel and foreign study destination. Studying Spanish in schools and universities has also grown in popularity. These days the language is becoming very popular in Asia, signifying its importance in global economic markets. An estimated 18 million students are currently studying Spanish as a foreign language.
Hopefully this will be a good incentive to people of all ages and from all kinds of backgrounds to learn Spanish, and to enjoy the many benefits that speaking Spanish can bring! Samanphy is currently based in London, coming from Hong Kong.
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Along with speaking Cantonese, Mandarin and English, she has been learning Spanish since , lived and worked in Spain before and is a fluent speaker. She is working in the marketing department at Livety. FluentU takes real-world videos like music videos, commercials, news, and inspiring talks and turns them into Spanish learning experiences.
Other sites use scripted content. FluentU uses a natural approach that helps you ease into the Spanish language and culture over time. FluentU has a wide variety of videos—topics like soccer, TV shows, business, movies and even magical realism, as you can see here:. Loan-words of the 16c include the orthographically unadapted words armada , cargo , desperado , flotilla , mosquito , mulatto , negro , pec c adillo , sombrero and the adapted ambush , cannibal , cask , cigar , comrade , jennet , parade , renegade , sherry.
Other loans have entered the language since then, such as unadapted albino , flotilla , hacienda , mesa , plaza , siesta , adapted barbecue , caramel , cockroach , corvette , doubloon , escapade , guitar , jade , lime , maroon , picaresque , quadroon. Many items borrowed from Spanish were through Spanish from indigenous Amerindian languages, such as avocado , chocolate , coyote , peyote , from the Aztec language Nahuatl. English in Spanish In recent decades, English has had a greater influence on Spanish than vice versa.
This has happened wherever Spanish is spoken, but is particularly noticeable where Spanish- and English-speaking communities live as neighbours such as along the US—Mexican border and where communities of speakers of one language have migrated to the territory of another such as Puerto Ricans in New York City: British expatriate communities and facilities for holiday-makers along the Mediterranean littoral of Spain. In general, the influence is lexical, especially in the borrowing and adaptation of technical and sporting terms. Many of these borrowings are accepted only grudgingly or until more Hispanicized equivalents are coined.
Not all are current in all dialects, but are clearly favoured in contact dialects. Some expressions are borrowings, either unadapted or adapted, while others are Anglicisms in a more general sense: loan shifts resulting from English influence in the usage of traditional Spanish words, often cognates of English Romance-derived words. Loan shifts and translations may compete with established usages: the verbs rentar with alquilar to rent and clarificar with aclarar to clarify ; the nouns elevador with acensor a lift, elevator; profesional with profesionista a professional.
Sometimes they are entirely new: perro caliente a hot dog, escuela alta high school. Others, such as filmoteca a library of films, are loan blends. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 23, Retrieved September 23, from Encyclopedia.
Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
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Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. From that time until Mexico's independence in , the Spanish crown established and maintained settlements from Florida to California. This region, covering approximately the southern third of the North American continent exclusive of modern-day Mexico, received the apposite designation of the "Spanish borderlands" from twentieth-century historians.
The easternmost portion of the Spanish borderlands was known as "La Florida" and included the entire southeast quadrant of the present United States , from South Carolina to Mississippi. In the last years of the seventeenth century, French explorers claimed the full extent of the Mississippi watershed for Louis XIV , naming it accordingly Louisiana. In the seventeenth century, English colonists drove the Spanish out of all of La Florida except for the peninsula that now bears the name of that once vast region.
It remained in Spanish hands until its purchase by the United States in , if one discounts the British occupation from to When the French lost Canada. New Mexico that is, the present states of New Mexico and Arizona , Texas, and California became part of the Mexican republic that achieved independence in The Spanish borderlands left an immense linguistic legacy.
The most immediate and obvious remnants are the thousands of place-names of Spanish origin that pepper maps from Florida to California. American English absorbed large numbers of loanwords from Spanish as the United States extended its sway over Spanish-speaking territories. The Amerindian languages, especially of the Southwest from Texas to California , incorporated hundreds of Spanish vocabulary items into their languages.
An incalculable number of documents in archives from Florida to California to say nothing of Mexican and Spanish archives containing material relevant to the Spanish borderlands attest to the use of Spanish not only in its official bureaucratic form but often in ways that reflect many traits of colloquial speech. Finally, and most important, is the survival of Spanish-speaking communities in New Mexico and Louisiana, whose uninterrupted existence from colonial times to the present provides a fascinating example of persistence in the face of overwhelming demographic pressure from speakers of English.
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The Spanish spoken in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado constitutes a direct survival of the colonial and Mexican periods of the Southwest. It is also by far the most thoroughly studied variety of U. Spanish; in fact, the publication of Aurelio M. Both communities are characterized by a rich folkloric tradition, involving both prose and verse, and in the case of New Mexico, theater as well.
This is an oral literature that reflects local patterns of speech and is consequently of great value for linguistic analysis. However impressive the linguistic legacy of the Spanish borderlands might be, it is rather in the twentieth century that the Spanish language became such an integral part of the national scene. Major currents of immigration followed close upon historical events. The Spanish- American War in brought Puerto Rico into its special relationship with the United States and opened the doors for the establishment of Puerto Rican communities, principally in New York City, but eventually in many other parts of the country.
The Mexican revolution that began in had the effect of driving many refugees north of the border, but the principal magnet for immigration was the economic opportunities offered by U. Mexican communities all over the Southwest were strengthened by immigration from Mexico, but many immigrants settled in other parts of the country; for instance, Chicago became home to an especially numerous and active community. The Cuban revolution of provoked yet another diaspora, the principal center of which is Miami.
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Over and above such catastrophic displacements there has been a steady immigration from all Spanish-speaking countries. Spanish is by far the largest non- English language spoken in the United States; indeed, with perhaps 30 million Spanish speakers, the United States counts as one of the largest Spanish-speaking countries after Mexico and Spain. In studying the numerous varieties of U. Spanish, the predominant theme of linguistic research has been to measure the impact of English on immigrant Spanish. English affects the sound system phonology and word forms morphology in very limited ways, while the influence on vocabulary lexicon and phrase and sentence construction syntax tends to be notable.
Bilingual speakers among themselves often use both languages in the same discourse, a phenomenon labeled "code-switching" in the linguistic literature. The manner in which the rapid transitions from one language to the other are achieved possesses considerable importance for general linguistics.
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The Hispanic tradition has enriched American English literature in two ways: first, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, numerous American writers have shown a special fascination with the Hispanic world in general, and the Spanish borderlands in particular. Their works have helped to propagate large numbers of Spanish loanwords into American English.
In the second half of the twentieth century, significant contributions to American English literature have been made by authors of Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Mexican descent. Their works often contain considerable numbers of Spanish words and phrases that their readers are presumed to know and no doubt penetrate into the language of mono-lingual English speakers.
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